A Quick Formulation of Compressed Sensing

2021-12-27 ☾ A very, very mininal derivation of the optimization

Compressed sensing is a signal processing method for reconstructing a signal from an undersampled set of measurements. Here, we will derive the optimization problem at the core of compressed sensing.

  • Let \(x\) be the true signal.

  • Let \(x \stackrel{\mathcal U}{\mapsto} s\) be the representation of \(x\) in a functional basis space.

  • Let \(x = \Psi s\) for some universal transform basis \(\Psi\) (e.g., Fourier, wavelet, etc.).

  • Let \(y = Cx\) be the measured signal, where \(C\) is the measurement matrix.

Our objective is to obtain a subsampled version of \(s\) from \(y\), and then recover \(s \stackrel{\mathcal U^{-1}}{\mapsto} x\), i.e.,

\[ \begin{equation} \min_s \frac{1}{2} ||y - C\Psi s||_2^2 \,. \end{equation} \]

As stated, this optimization is a underspecified / indeterminate problem (i.e., there are infinitely many solutions for \(s\)), so we constrain the solutions to be sparse:

\[ \begin{equation} \min_s \frac{1}{2} ||y - C\Psi s||_2^2 + \lambda||s||_0 \,. \end{equation} \]

However, minimizing \(l_0\) norms is NP hard (because it requires combinatorial optimization), so we relax the problem with the \(l_1\) norm:

\[ \begin{equation} \min_s \frac{1}{2} ||y - C\Psi s||_2^2 + \lambda||s||_1 \,. \end{equation} \]

This is a well-defined problem, and is solvable with linear programming (e.g., basis pursuit, denoising/matching). Additionally, Equation 3 is equivalent to Equation 2 under certain conditions (e.g., \(\nu\)-incoherence) and constraints on \(C\Psi\). Then, given a noisy, downsampled measurement \(y\), solve Equation 3 to get \(\hat s\), and predict the original signal to be \(\hat x = \Psi \hat s\) which is equivalent to \(\hat s \stackrel{\mathcal U^{-1}}{\mapsto} \hat x\).